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By: John E. Bennett, MD, MACP

  • Adjunct Professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine
  • Director, Infectious Diseases Training Program, NIH Office of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education, Bethesda, Maryland

https://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/john-e-bennett-md

Jackfruit contains potassium that maintains sodium levels in the body as well as fluid levels to asthma 9-11 buy singulair 4mg online balance electrolytes asthma symptoms images order singulair without a prescription. So asthma center singulair 5mg low cost, it is useful for reducing high blood pressure asthma yellow zone symptoms discount singulair 5mg online, and the risk of stroke and heart attack. The crop is widely distributed in Cuba, Egypt India, Jamaica, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore and Sri Lanka. Life form and ecology: Small to medium-sized perennial tree of about 10 m height with a fragile and corky stem. Flowering varies with location and is greatly influenced by rain, temperature, humidity, wind, soil temperature and soil moisture. Uses and used parts: All parts of this tree are useful either for nutritional or medicinal purposes. This tree has small leaves, white flowers and seedpods which are long, slender and triangular, resembling drumsticks. For cooking, the leaves, flowers and pods are used for their miraculous health benefits. Contains no cholesterol and is beneficial for patients suffering from hypertension. Constant ingesting of drumstick and its leaves is thought to decrease the probability of getting cancer and it is thought to be particularly useful for women recovering from breast cancer. Rich in beta-carotene and vitamin A, it improves vision and prevents ageing macular degeneration. Grown in India, and parts of North Africa, Argentina, France, China, Pakistan and Morocco. Life form and ecology: An annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small oblong leaflets. It has wide adaptability and is successfully cultivated in the tropics as well as temperate regions. Uses and used parts: Fenugreek is used as an herb (dried or fresh leaves), spice (seeds), and vegetable (fresh leaves, sprouts, and microgreens). Cuboid-shaped, yellow- to amber-colored seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, both whole and powdered in the preparation of pickles, vegetable dishes, daals, and spice mixes such as panch phoron and sambar. Ingredients and health benefits: the health benefits of fenugreek include relief from anaemia, biliousness, dandruff, diabetes, fever, inflammation, insomnia, loss of taste, mouth ulcers, respiratory disorders, sore throat, stomach problems and wounds. Fenugreek appears to slow the absorption of sugars in the stomach and stimulate production of insulin. In traditional Chinese medicine, the spice is known as a phlegm mover and is said to cool inflammation within the body. Standardization of production technology Pulses Horticultural crops Jackfruit, Drumstick Others Fenugreek 13. The problem is that most of the local foods cannot be stored long-term and preservation technologies have not been locally developed. This has resulted in a shift to foods like cereals and pulses which may not be as nutritious but can be stored easily. There are many other underutilized crops in the diet of Bengali people (see Table 13. Research on these crops shows they have great potential for sustainability, profitability and diversification of cropping systems in West Bengal. Specific strategies and dynamic approaches are required to sustainably manage these crops. Work on the conservation, utilization and sustainable use of such crops should be emphasized. Assessing performance of pulses and competing crops based on market prices and natural resources evaluation. There is a disconnect in the value chain between production, consumption and nutrition: current agricultural production patterns are not sustainable, are unlikely to achieve necessary growth rates and do not offer the right mix of nutrients needed for a healthy diet. Consumers are often unaware of their potential food choices and stick to dietary patterns that do not suit an urbanized lifestyle. Farmers and other stakeholders whose livelihoods, health and incomes are challenged by climate change and price turbulence are certainly aware of it. However, many Asian farmers have grown up knowing only input-intensive rice farming, and many consumers make dietary choices that are unhealthy or unsustainable. An increasing number of people eat greater volumes than necessary and prefer foods that are high in sugar, salt and fat, partially due to the lack of knowledge on what constitutes a healthy diet. Traditional food systems have developed over hundreds of years in Asia, featuring a wide abundance of crops. However, the importance of some crops in modern society has been declining and many are now considered neglected. We need to recognize that preference and policy support provided for cash crops or monocropping have driven that transition. Unsustainable high-input, intensive crop production and monocultures have led to environmental degradation through pollution, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, salinization and depletion of soil nutrients. We observe a clear connection between malnutrition, low dietary diversity, and limited diversity in agricultural production. Moreover, production must be environmentally sustainable or it will not be efficient, and we will deplete our natural resources. Adding to the challenge, improved production of more nutritious food has to happen in the context of major uncertainties, including climate change, demand for biofuels and price volatility. To address the current nutrition and production gaps in agriculture and food systems, countries need to promote agricultural diversification and sustainable intensification. This requires an integrated approach combining both nutrition-sensitive and climate-smart agriculture. This is especially meaningful for the rural poor, who suffer the most from the production and nutrition gaps, as well as from shocks and uncertainties. It should not be forgotten that the vital food systems in Asia, featuring a wide variety of food crops that are nutrition-dense and climate-resilient, have been declining in recent times, and many traditional crops are now considered neglected. Agricultural diversification and sustainable intensification offer enormous opportunities for addressing hunger and malnutrition especially in the context of climate change. They are an essential source of protein and micronutrients, enhance climate resilience, improve agricultural sustainability and boost household income and livelihoods thanks to their considerable commercial potential. Not only are these crops inadequately characterized, but also their nutrient contents are yet to be systematically analysed. Wider adaptation is needed to tap the hidden potential of agro-biodiversity to address the challenge of hunger and malnutrition in the changing climate. Rediscovering their value, and providing tailor-made policies and technical support for their wider application, post-harvest and value chain development will help to alleviate malnutrition and reintroduce diversity into the diets of millions. Governments need to shift their focus from staple crops only and tap into the huge potential of alternative crops that are nutrition-dense and climate-resilient. These crops need to be economically viable, socially acceptable and locally available. The limited production diversity has partly been caused by a bias towards agricultural policies that favour staple and cash crop production to reduce hunger without targeting micronutrient deficiencies. Identify improved agronomic practices for soil and water management, pest and disease control, integrated pest control, weed control etc. If proven effective, these could then be scaled up under national agricultural policies and the national adaptation programmes of action for crop diversification to address malnutrition. Identify improved post-harvest techniques for crop harvesting, threshing, cleaning, drying, storage, and primary and secondary processing that would significantly minimize losses and improve product quality while maintaining food safety. Create awareness of potential markets and market demand for underutilized crops among stakeholders throughout the supply chain, including farmers, collectors, transporters, wholesalers and retailers, and national agricultural extension and marketing organizations. Provide alternative marketing arrangements through contract farming and the farmer-producer company model. Identify good agronomic practices relating to operations including planting, irrigation and water management, fertilizer application, and pest and disease management. Increase awareness of other stakeholders in the supply chain from farm to market, namely collectors, processors, and wholesale and retail traders, on good manufacturing practices related to field production, post-harvest management, processing and marketing, as this is a critical limitation to promoting underutilized crops through crop diversification. Identify the best cropping systems and patterns that would optimize the use of scarce water and other agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, and maximize returns to suit different agro-ecological conditions. Strengthen microfinance systems, as the rural population lacks sufficient capital to acquire improved production and post-harvest agro-processing technologies.

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This is particularly effective in large exhibits where the animals tend to spasmodic asthma medical definition order discount singulair online stay in one favorite spot asthma during pregnancy buy 10mg singulair mastercard. Many scents have been tried with elephants asthma 3 visit plan order singulair visa, and the following have elicited the most response asthma symptoms pulmonary generic singulair 5mg amex. The browse is eaten, the bark is stripped off the logs and consumed, and the other sub- Environmental Enrichment Houston Zoo, Anita Schanberger Elephants appear to enjoy painting, and humans appreciate the final product. Although this assessment tool has yet to be validated, it is felt that it represents an important first step in systematically assessing the impact of enrichment. Description of Enrichment Practice: Observation on initial reaction to enrichment (after 15 minute observation): 1. Yes Yes No No Describe the actions of the elephants upon presentation of the enrichment activity: Were the elephants still using the enrichment after 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Observations of the enrichment activity made throughout the day: Recommendation for future use: Completed by: Date: 238 Elephant Husbandry Resource Guide Fort Worth Zoo See next page for instructions on how to use this sheet. One behavior should be checked on the left side of the bold line for each elephant in the exhibit. When enrichment is present, the handlers should indicate if any contact or evidence of contact with enrichment item occurs during or seems to have occurred since the last observation period. If the enrichment item appears to have been moved or manipulated in some way since the last observation but the elephants are not in contact with the item at the time of the observation, a check mark should be made in the "indirect evidence of use" column. If enrichment is not present, only the behaviors on the left side of the data sheet should be used. If the behavior is not listed on the data sheet, handlers should check the other box and describe the behavior in the comments column on the right side of the data sheet. Every day the work to save elephant habitat helps in conserving many other kinds of wildlife. The popular appeal of elephants is so great that attention and efforts garnered to save this flagship species benefits many endangered animals. As with many species threatened with extinction, captive management programs are becoming increasingly important to the survival of elephants. The opportunities for people to learn about and appreciate elephants is perhaps the most important reason for elephants to be maintained in captivity-as ambassadors of their species. It is the general public who will decide the eventual fate of elephants in the wild, and conservation of their habitat and our environment as a whole. It is important that people are exposed to elephants in a variety of situations-from the zoo, to the circus, to private facilities, to the wild. Ultimately, the more people know about elephants as indi- Education viduals the more likely they are to care about what happens to them as a species. Successful conservation programs are realized through the education of the decision-makers of tomorrow. As people become more and more removed from the natural world, every person who can be reached is a potential conservationist, and there are no such things as surplus conservationists. Through Six Flags Marine World Giving people an opportunity to learn about and appreciate elephants is perhaps the most important reason for elephants to be maintained in human care. With advances in modern exhibitry, the presentation of organized educational classes and impromptu elephantthe educational message has improved dramatically. New exhibitry and educational techniques investigate the threats facing elephants today and are allow opportunities for stationary and interactive graphics. Our "students" can range in age display the tools used in captive management, and even from 1 to 100. Although everyone who works with an demonstrate current scientific investigations such as the elephant, regardless of the capacity, can be an educator, education departments provide an organized structure for learning. Formal education departments can develop programs that meet National Science Education Standards appropriate for the age and learning abilities of the student. Formal education classes should be developed with curricula appropriate for the elephant facility, formal classroom, home-schooling, and the public education system. Education departments should work closely with the elephant manager, trainers and veterinary staff in order to develop a positive An elephant enthusiast is born. Buffalo Zoo 242 Elephant Husbandry Resource Guide Six Flags Marine World Six Flags Marine World Deborah Olson, Indianapolis Zoo Deborah Olson, Indianapolis Zoo Graphics strategies: Top left and top right: Graphics can be displayed alongside the elephant enclosure. Bottom left: An excellent outreach strategy is to station volunteers with educational materials at the enclosure. In that case, hand-outs, audio message systems, or guided tours can be extremely successful. Many of these questions can only be answered through scientific inquiry using captive elephants. The research that provided the insight we now have into elephant reproduction, memory, visual acuity, nutritional requirements, pathology of disease and its treatment would have been impossible to conduct in the wild. It is strongly recommended that not only should this research be put to good use in the conservation of elephants, it should also be used to educate the public about elephant issues and the role of science in resolving these issues. Elephant demonstrations feature the biggest and most impressive learning tools-the elephants. Thrilling an adult or child with the intelligence and physical abilities of an elephant through entertaining performances have been shown to be an effective educational strategy. The opportunity to experience the great size of an elephant, the texture of its skin, and its very own elephant odor contributes to a greater understanding and respect for elephants and their habitat. Demonstrations should have a strong educational content with respect to elephant behavior, management, habitat destruction, and population decline. These demonstrations should also attempt to meet some of the daily physical and mental exercise requirements of the elephants. Performances derived from natural behaviors that have been modified-for example, tub and ground sits, walking on balance beams, long mounts, and so on-are acceptable forms of education, mental stimulation, and exercise for the elephant. Some elephant facilities view elephant rides as an important management and education tool. The regular exercise received by giving rides to visitors is an excellent way to provide elephants with physical and intellectual activity. The elephant is mentally stimulated by the sights, sounds, smells, and the people they meet. The elephant handler uses the ride to promote the bond between the elephant and handler. The two must work together, Sedgwick County Zoo Six Flags Marine World Studies demonstrate that the public enjoys the opportunity to interact with elephant staff. This is a primary education tool, and elephant managers should create as many staff-public interactions as possible. Good dispositions and calm personalities are requirements for any elephant chosen to give rides. Each ride elephant must receive extensive training to become familiar and comfortable around bright lights, loud noises, vehicles, fireworks, other animals, music and other activities that might cause excitement. Two qualified elephant handlers should be present at all times while the rides are operating. All handlers must be trained in safe handling of riders, dealing courteously with patrons, and contacting proper authorities in case of an emergency. The ride platform and saddles must be cleaned and inspected for safety daily before giving rides. The elephant must be visually inspected and all debris brushed or hosed off before saddling. The elephant handler must physically and visually check the saddle for proper placement and necessary adjustments before giving any rides. For loading of riders, the elephant is to stand erect, touching the platform with its right shoulder and hip. The handler must make a visual inspection of the riders and confirm that the elephant is properly loaded before leaving the platform. The handler must make frequent visual and verbal contact with the riders to ensure that the riders are sitting appropriately in the saddle and to answer questions. The elephant must not be positioned next to the loading platform if a loader is not in place to assist the guests on and off the elephant. During any exchange of handlers, the new handler must physically check the saddle for proper placement and make necessary adjustments.

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Zheng asthma natural remedies buy cheap singulair 5mg on-line, "Ballistic Resistant Body Armor: Contemporary and Prospective Materials and Related Protection Mechanisms asthma 12 reversibility generic singulair 10 mg with visa," Applied Mechanics Reviews asthma chronic bronchitis or emphysema purchase singulair 4mg online, Vol asthma symptoms that wont go away 10mg singulair mastercard. These methods add cost and may complicate final testing due to increased performance variation. The bulk ceramics currently in use (SiC, Al2O3, and B4C) have reasonable performance, particularly for a low-density material. There are no readily available ceramics that show markedly improved performance and density characteristics. For example, ceramic particles are included in epoxies used to make tennis rackets or golf club shafts to increase the strength. In the case of hard armor applications, the particles are not added to improve strength but to improve toughness. Ceramic hard plate improvements are likely to be the result of advanced processing, incorporation of composite structures, or the use of high performance additives. The ballistic response of the ceramic plate is related to the toughness and hardness of the material. Fracture toughness is a measure of the resistance to crack propagation in the material. The chemical composition of the ceramic can also be modified in the underlying material structure. For example, SiC-N incorporates silicon nitride phases with the bulk SiC material. SiC-N has demonstrated toughness values twice that of standard SiC, though with a loss of hardness. Optimizing ceramic performance will require ballistic testing to assess appropriate hardness and toughness parameters for SiC-N or other ceramics. The performance of ceramics can also be improved through the use of thin coatings to the front face of the plate. One could imagine a SiC-N plate with its improved toughness, coated with a thin TiB2 layer to compensate for its decreased hardness. Any assessment of these complicated plates must account for the overall weight and cost. Complex ceramic processing and the application of a thin, hard coating are likely to be expensive. The impact of a high velocity projectile on a ceramic plate results in an extremely high strain-rate condition. The strength, hardness, and toughness of a material under these extreme conditions are not uniformly predicted by standard material properties. For example, the toughness of SiC was significantly improved through the addition of an aluminum-boron-carbon sintering agent. In any assessment of new material systems, the ballistic performance in the actual body armor system must be evaluated. Improving Soft Armor Materials Improvements of soft armor focus on improving either the inter-yarn friction or individual fiber performance. As is the case with ceramic hard plates, final assessment requires ballistic testing of the entire body armor system. These reinforced fibers are then woven into yarn and subsequently into fabrics used to make soft armor. While a replacement for ceramic plates is being investigated, candidate replacement materials tend to be technologically immature, and their projected cost is comparatively very expensive. While impressive, the improvements have been essentially evolutionary, not revolutionary. The designs have been driven by a changing threat and the availability of new technology (whether it is a new technique for weaving fibers or stronger yet lighter plates). A question that is often raised is: Should the development of the next generation of soft and hard body armor be conducted under an acquisition program of record, or can it remain under a commodity procurement process in the same way that the previous body armor improvements have been developed, even though significant improvements to the nextgeneration body armor will be much more difficult to achieve? We will next discuss the similarities and differences between an acquisition program of record and a commodity procurement approach, which are summarized in Table 3. From this discussion, we will give the pros and cons of continuing with the commodity procurement approach. A commodity procurement usually involves the purchase of readily available items, such as clothing. After the commodity has 17 the Army is seeking to develop the capability to design, optimize, and fabricate lightweight protection material systems exhibiting revolutionary performance. While this process is reasonable for buying clothing, however, it appears less suited for procuring high-technology body armor. The technology development phase is complete when, among other things, an affordable program is identified. And so on, through engineering and manufacturing development, production and deployment, and operations and support. As one can see, the acquisition program of record is a complicated and complex process and can lead to a lengthy undertaking. However, the acquisition program of record has a proven track record as being effective in developing advanced technology systems. The two approaches to developing and procuring body armor are significantly different during requirements generation and procurement. From there, a purchase description is generated that specifies the requirements for the commodity, body armor in this case. These include the risks and costs involved in developing advanced materials, the adequacy of current body armor, and the uncertainty in the future body armor market. Some novel, out-of-the-box options are required that may lead to such a breakthrough. This requires efforts that are outside the usual acquisition and procurement processes. There are essentially two models-an award prize for a stated goal or competition and a fund promising ideas through prototypes. As we have seen in our discussion, requirements can be a driver of the body armor weight. For example, the current approach of separating body armor into a soft and a hard component should be merged. Historically, soft armor vests were developed first, then later, hard armor plates were added to the vest. It is possible that overall system performance could be improved with a more integrated design approach. Vendors need to see a market for the next-generation body armor before they will devote their time and money to researching ways to reduce the weight. Long, Critical Technology Events in the Development of the Abrams Tank: Project Hindsight Revisited, Washington, D. Additional investment was made in testing and test facilities to enable the identification of technical issues and to assess progress. In addition, very significant efforts were made in modeling and simulation to provide new analytic tools. As a result, hundreds of thousands of tank rounds were procured, creating a multi-billion dollar market. Such a large market and the prospect of continued development and procurement contracts for new products every few years attracted several companies that competed for market share by way of cost and value. Estimates of the weight savings that are probable for nextgeneration body armor weight cannot yet be reliably made. The current commodity procurement process appears adequate to provide the funding and management flexibility that are needed to develop the next-generation body armor. If a modest reduction of plate weight appears feasible and the threat remains the same, new advanced technology plates are not necessarily needed. In such a case, DoD is best suited to stay with the commodity procurement approach. However, if the projected threat increases and the effects of body armor weight are shown to dramatically impact soldier combat performance, then an acquisition program of record is the best approach to developing the next generation of advanced technology body armor. Funding under the same program element number continued, but with the name "Tank and Medium Caliber Ammunition.

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In Aztec legend asthma definition 90937 order cheap singulair line, she was the mother of the Toltec priest-ruler Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl asthma zenhale purchase singulair online now. In either case asthma differential diagnosis purchase singulair australia, it must be a volcano located near Chigag as the Annals of the Cakchiquels describes it as "standing abreast" of Chigag (Recinos and Goetz 1953 asthma definition virtue purchase singulair 4 mg with amex, 61). Edmonson identifies it with Tajumulco, a volcano in the district of Huehuetenango, Guatemala (Edmonson 1971, 36 n. Now these, the children of Seven Macaw, received their greatness from their father. The boys, Hunahpu and Xbalanque, therefore saw evil in them before the creation of our first mother and our first father. Each day he would rise up to the top of the tree to knock down some of the fruit of the nance tree, and it is there that he was seen by Hunahpu and Xbalanque. Hunahpu181 directed a 177 lines 985-1188 178 At the beginning of this section, the authors point out certain elements of the story as if they could be seen by the reader. This feature may be evidence that in the Precolumbian version of the Popol Vuh the text was accompanied by painted illustrations. Throughout this section on the shooting of Seven Macaw, the authors of the text refer to the first of the twins as One Hunahpu, which is also the name of his father. To avoid confusion, the authors generally shortened the name of the son to Hunahpu or Xhunahpu (Little Hunahpu). Seven Macaw cried out,182 sailing over the top of the tree and landing on the ground. He wrenched it back, bending it back at the shoulder until it was torn free from Hunahpu. This first episode will not result in their defeat by Seven Macaw, even though he took away the arm of Hunahpu. They went to speak to the one Grandfather, whose hair was now truly white, and also the one Grandmother, who was now truly humble. The boys then spoke to the Grandmother and the Grandfather: "We would like you to accompany us to retrieve our arm from Seven Macaw. The Grandmother and the Grandfather passed below the home of the lord while the twins played behind them. When he saw the Grandfather and Grandmother journeying together, he asked them: "From where do you come, our grandfather? I have chosen "worm" because the Maya believe that toothaches are caused by parasitic worms or insect larvae. Perhaps this is a result of the wormlike appearance of dental pulp seen within broken teeth. In modern usage, this is a mode of speech reserved for respected officials, lineage patriarchs, or the elderly. Seven Macaw addresses the elderly grandparents using the familiar "you," indicating he considers himself more important. Therefore it was with great effort that he spoke again: "I beg of you, take pity on me. Two demons shot me with a blowgun, and since then I have not been able to eat because of it. Bonesetters are still an important group of ritual specialists in many highland Maya communities. As a substitute they placed mere white grains of maize, mere shiny white grains of maize, and immediately his face fell. Thus the basis for his pride was completely taken away according to the plans of Hunahpu and Xbalanque. Thus the wealth of Seven Macaw was lost, for the healers took it away-the jewels, the precious stones, and all that which had made him proud here upon the face of the earth. Then the boys retrieved their arm and implanted it back into its socket, making it whole again. For they saw pride as evil191 and went to do these things according to the word of Heart of Sky. It may also refer to the plucking of feathers from a chicken prior to cooking, which is likely the meaning in this passage. This is an explanation for the large white eye patch and unusually small eyes of the scarlet macaw, which appear as if something had been taken away. It is difficult to discern how this word was understood prior to the Spanish conquest. Now this Zipacna was bathing on the banks of a river when there passed by four hundred boys,193 dragging a tree to be used as a supporting beam for their hut. Thus he carried it on his shoulders up to the doorway195 of the hut of the four hundred boys. Coto also lists under this word "falseness, filth, ugliness, error, perversion, and worthlessness. The world is conceived by the Maya as a great house, its corners being the four cardinal points, its roof the sky, and its foundation the underworld (Vogt 1976, 58). The lintel represents the principal access point of the interior space and was often ornately decorated in Precolumbian times. Such beams are therefore seen as endowed with great power, particularly those used in the homes of spiritual leaders. Then they sent for Zipacna: "We entrust you to go now to dig in the ground, for we are not able to do it," he was told. He had learned that he was to be killed, and therefore he had dug a branching hole to one side. When I shall call up to you there, then the digging will have been successfully completed," called Zipacna from the hole. Therefore, when Zipacna called up, he had already saved himself there inside the hole: "Come and take the earth away-the dirt that I have dug up from the hole. Your voices just echo away as if you were a long way off when I hear them," said Zipacna from his hole. When he cries out, we will know that he shall be dead," they whispered to each other. So when he spoke he cried out with a loud voice, he called out one more word when they dropped down the tree. What kind of omen would it have been if he had persisted in carrying out his deeds, his work? Then he might have become first among us, placing himself over us, even us the four hundred boys," they said. Then will our hearts be comforted, when we will drink our sweet drink," they said. He had merely cut the hair off his own head and gnawed off his own nails to give to the ants. Alternatively it may be pulque, made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave, or century plant). A distilled form of this ancient drink is sold today as mezcal or tequila, although the distillation process was not known prior to the Spanish conquest. In Aztec mythology, pulque is personified by gods known as the Centzon Totochtin (400 Rabbits), who appear frequently in painted manuscripts such as the Codex Magliabechiano. These gods are also associated by the Aztecs with the four hundred youths slain by the god Huitzilopochtli as ritual sacrifices. The deaths of the four hundred youths in the Popol Vuh account may thus have had ritual significance. The beverage referred to could also possibly be balche, made from fermented honey and the bark of the balche tree. Alcohol is a prevalent part of highland Maya society, used both socially as well as a necessary component of ceremonial observances. Such was the death of these four hundred boys at the hands of Zipacna, the son of Seven Macaw. It is said that they became the constellation known as the Pleiades,198 but perhaps this is merely a fable. He was defeated by the twins, Hunahpu and Xbalanque, whose hearts were offended by the deaths of the four hundred boys at the hands of Zipacna.

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