By: Martin J. Blaser, MD
The embryonic axis terminates in a radicle (the embryonic root) menstrual fatigue order clomid from india, which is the region from which the root will develop elderly women's health issues cheap clomid 100mg on-line. In dicots menstrual gas pains order clomid from india, the hypocotyls extend above ground menstrual juice best purchase clomid, giving rise to the stem of the plant. In monocots, the hypocotyl does not show above ground because monocots do not exhibit stem elongation. The part of the embryonic axis that projects above the cotyledons is known as the epicotyl. The plumule is composed of the epicotyl, young leaves, and the shoot apical meristem. Upon germination in dicot seeds, the epicotyl is shaped like a hook with the plumule pointing downwards. This shape is called the plumule hook, and it persists as long as germination proceeds in the dark. Therefore, as the epicotyl pushes through the tough and abrasive soil, the plumule is protected from damage. Upon exposure to light, the hypocotyl hook straightens out, the young foliage leaves face the sun and expand, and the epicotyl continues to elongate. During this time, 916 Chapter 32 Plant Reproduction the radicle is also growing and producing the primary root. As it grows downward to form the tap root, lateral roots branch off to all sides, producing the typical dicot tap root system. As the seed germinates, the primary root emerges, protected by the root-tip covering: the coleorhiza. Next, the primary shoot emerges, protected by the coleoptile: the covering of the shoot tip. Seed Germination Many mature seeds enter a period of inactivity, or extremely low metabolic activity: a process known as dormancy, which may last for months, years or even centuries. This guarantees that seeds produced by plants in temperate climates will not germinate until the spring. Plants growing in hot climates may have seeds that need a heat treatment in order to germinate, to avoid germination in the hot, dry summers. In many seeds, the presence of a thick seed coat retards the ability to germinate. Scarification, which includes mechanical or chemical processes to soften the seed coat, is often employed before germination. Species with large seeds have enough food reserves to germinate deep below ground, and still extend their epicotyl all the way to the soil surface. This ensures the seeds only germinate at or near the soil surface (where the light is greatest). If they were to germinate too far underneath the surface, the developing seedling would not have enough food reserves to reach the sunlight. Development of Fruit and Fruit Types After fertilization, the ovary of the flower usually develops into the fruit. Fruits are usually associated with having a sweet taste; however, not all fruits are sweet. In most cases, flowers in which fertilization has taken place will develop into fruits, and flowers in which fertilization has not taken place will not. Some fruits develop from the ovary and are known as true fruits, whereas others develop from other parts of the female gametophyte and are known as accessory fruits. The fruit encloses the seeds and the developing embryo, thereby providing it with protection. The sweet tissue of the blackberry, the red flesh of the tomato, the shell of the peanut, and the hull of corn (the tough, thin part that gets stuck in your teeth when you eat popcorn) are all fruits. If the fruit develops from a single carpel or fused carpels of a single ovary, it is known as a simple fruit, as seen in nuts and beans. An aggregate fruit is one that develops from more than one carpel, but all are in the same flower: the mature carpels fuse together to form the entire fruit, as seen in the raspberry. Accessory fruits (sometimes called false fruits) are not derived from the ovary, but from another part of the flower, such as the receptacle (strawberry) or the hypanthium (apples and pears). Multiple fruits, such as pineapple, form from a cluster of flowers called an inflorescence. Accessory fruit, like the apple, are formed from a part of the plant other than the ovary. The mesocarp is usually the fleshy, edible part of the fruit; however, in some fruits, such as the almond, the endocarp is the edible part. In many fruits, two or all three of the layers are fused, and are indistinguishable at maturity. Dehiscent fruits, such as peas, readily release their seeds, while indehiscent fruits, like peaches, rely on decay to release their seeds. Seeds contained within fruits need to be dispersed far from the mother plant, so they may find favorable and less competitive conditions in which to germinate and grow. Some fruit have built-in mechanisms so they can disperse by themselves, whereas others require the help of agents like wind, water, and animals (Figure 32. Winddispersed fruit are lightweight and may have wing-like appendages that allow them to be carried by the wind. Some have 918 Chapter 32 Plant Reproduction a parachute-like structure to keep them afloat. Some fruits-for example, the dandelion-have hairy, weightless structures that are suited to dispersal by wind. Seeds dispersed by water are contained in light and buoyant fruit, giving them the ability to float. Coconuts are well known for their ability to float on water to reach land where they can germinate. Similarly, willow and silver birches produce lightweight fruit that can float on water. Animals and birds eat fruits, and the seeds that are not digested are excreted in their droppings some distance away. Some animals, like squirrels, bury seed-containing fruits for later use; if the squirrel does not find its stash of fruit, and if conditions are favorable, the seeds germinate. Humans also play a big role in dispersing seeds when they carry fruits to new places and throw away the inedible part that contains the seeds. Seed dormancy, which was described earlier, allows plants to disperse their progeny through time: something animals cannot do. Dormant seeds can wait months, years, or even decades for the proper conditions for germination and propagation of the species. This method does not require the investment required to produce a flower, attract pollinators, or find a means of seed dispersal. Asexual reproduction produces plants that are genetically identical to the parent plant because no mixing of male and female gametes takes place. Traditionally, these plants survive well under stable environmental conditions when compared with plants produced from sexual reproduction because they carry genes identical to those of their parents. Bulbs, such as a scaly bulb in lilies and a tunicate bulb in daffodils, are other common examples. Ginger and iris produce rhizomes, while ivy uses an adventitious root (a root arising from a plant part other than the main or primary root), and the strawberry plant has a stolon, which is also called a runner. Either the ovule or part of the ovary, which is diploid in nature, gives rise to a new seed. An advantage of asexual reproduction is that the resulting plant will reach maturity faster. Since the new plant is arising from an adult plant or plant parts, it will also be sturdier than a seedling. Asexual reproduction can take place by natural or artificial (assisted by humans) means. Natural Methods of Asexual Reproduction Natural methods of asexual reproduction include strategies that plants have developed to self-propagate. Many plants-like ginger, onion, gladioli, and dahlia-continue to grow from buds that are present on the surface of the stem. In some plants, such as the sweet potato, adventitious roots or runners can give rise to new plants Figure 32.
The chemical conversion of heme to breast cancer forum discount clomid 50 mg online bilirubin by reticuloendothelial cells can be observed in vivo as the purple color of the heme in a hematoma is slowly converted to breast cancer quilt purchase discount clomid the yellow pigment of bilirubin womens health tucson cheap clomid 50mg online. Most of the bilirubin excreted in the bile of mammals is in the form of bilirubin diglucuronide breast cancer mortality rate buy generic clomid 25mg online. Each molecule of albumin appears to have one high-affinity site and one low-affinity site for bilirubin. In 100 mL of plasma, approximately 25 mg of bilirubin can be tightly bound to albumin at its highaffinity site. A number of compounds such as antibiotics and other drugs compete with bilirubin for the high-affinity binding site on albumin. Thus, these compounds can displace bilirubin from albumin and have significant clinical effects. In the liver, the bilirubin is removed from albumin and taken up at the sinusoidal surface of the hepatocytes by a carrier-mediated saturable system. Once bilirubin enters the hepatocytes, it can bind to certain cytosolic proteins, which help to keep it solubilized prior to conjugation. Ligandin (a family of glutathione S-transferases) and protein Y are the involved proteins. Bilirubin Is Secreted Into Bile Secretion of conjugated bilirubin into the bile occurs by an active transport mechanism, which is probably ratelimiting for the entire process of hepatic bilirubin metabolism. It is located in the plasma membrane of the bile canalicular membrane and handles a number of organic anions. The hepatic transport of conjugated bilirubin into the bile is inducible by those same drugs that are capable of inducing the conjugation of bilirubin. Thus, the conjugation and excretion systems for bilirubin behave as a coordinated functional unit. Sites that are affected in a number of conditions causing jaundice (see below) are also indicated. Hepatocytes convert bilirubin to a polar form, which is readily excreted in the bile, by adding glucuronic acid molecules to it. Glucuronic acid is attached via ester linkage to the two propionic acid groups of bilirubin to form an acylglucuronide. In the terminal ileum and large intestine, a small fraction of the urobilinogens is reabsorbed and reexcreted through the liver to constitute the enterohepatic urobilinogen cycle. Darkening of feces upon standing in air is due to the oxidation of residual urobilinogens to urobilins. Certain proteins of hepatocytes, such as ligandin (a family of glutathione S-transferase) and Y protein, bind intracellular bilirubin and may prevent its efflux into the blood stream. In clinical studies of jaundice, measurement of bilirubin in the serum is of great value. In the original procedure as described by Ehrlich, methanol was used to provide a solution in which both bilirubin and the diazo regent were soluble. Van den Bergh inadvertently omitted the methanol on an occasion when assay of bile pigment in human bile was being attempted. However, it was still necessary to add methanol to detect bilirubin in normal serum or that which was present in excess in serum from cases of hemolytic jaundice where no evidence of obstruction was to be found. Since this bilirubin is not water-soluble, it requires methanol to initiate coupling with the diazo reagent. In the liver, the free bilirubin becomes conjugated with glucuronic acid, and the conjugate, bilirubin glucuronide, can then be excreted into the bile. Furthermore, conjugated bilirubin, being water- soluble, can react directly with the diazo reagent, so that the "direct bilirubin" of van den Bergh is actually a bilirubin conjugate (bilirubin glucuronide). Depending on the type of bilirubin present in plasma-ie, unconjugated or conjugated-hyperbilirubinemia may be classified as retention hyperbilirubinemia, due to overproduction, or regurgitation hyperbilirubinemia, due to reflux into the bloodstream because of biliary obstruction. Because of its hydrophobicity, only unconjugated bilirubin can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system; thus, encephalopathy due to hyperbilirubinemia (kernicterus) can occur only in connection with unconjugated bilirubin, as found in retention hyperbilirubinemia. On the other hand, because of its water-solubility, only conjugated bilirubin can appear in urine. Elevated Amounts of Unconjugated Bilirubin in Blood Occur in a Number of Conditions A. Because of the recognized inducibility of this bilirubin-metabolizing system, phenobarbital has been administered to jaundiced neonates and is effective in this disorder. In addition, exposure to blue light (phototherapy) promotes the hepatic excretion of unconjugated bilirubin by converting some of the bilirubin to other derivatives such as maleimide fragments and geometric isomers that are excreted in the bile. These acquired disorders are due to hepatic parenchymal cell damage, which impairs conjugation. Obstruction in the Biliary Tree Is the Commonest Cause of Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia A. The term cholestatic jaundice is used to include all cases of extrahepatic obstructive jaundice. It also covers those cases of jaundice that exhibit conjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to micro-obstruction of intrahepatic biliary ductules by swollen, damaged hepatocytes (eg, as may occur in infectious hepatitis). Phenobarbital has no effect on the formation of bilirubin glucuronides in patients with type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome. The centrilobular hepatocytes contain an abnormal black pigment that may be derived from epinephrine. Its precise cause has not been identified, but it is thought to be due to an abnormality in hepatic storage. Some Conjugated Bilirubin Can Bind Covalently to Albumin When levels of conjugated bilirubin remain high in plasma, a fraction can bind covalently to albumin (delta bilirubin). Thus, it remains elevated during the recovery phase of obstructive jaundice after the remainder of the conjugated bilirubin has declined to normal levels; this explains why some patients continue to appear jaundiced after conjugated bilirubin levels have returned to normal. Laboratory results in normal patients and patients with three different causes of jaundice. The presence of bilirubin in the urine is sometimes referred to as choluria-therefore, hepatitis and obstruction of the common bile duct cause choluric jaundice, whereas the jaundice of hemolytic anemia is referred to as acholuric. The laboratory results in patients with hepatitis are variable, depending on the extent of damage to parenchymal cells and the extent of micro-obstruction to bile ductules. Urobilinogen & Bilirubin in Urine Are Clinical Indicators Normally, there are mere traces of urobilinogen in the urine. In complete obstruction of the bile duct, no urobilinogen is found in the urine, since bilirubin has no access to the intestine, where it can be converted to urobilinogen. Bilirubin is not usually found in the urine in hemolytic jaundice (because unconjugated bilirubin does not pass into the urine), so that the combination of increased urobilinogen and absence of bilirubin is suggestive of hemolytic jaundice. Increased blood destruction from any cause brings about an increase in urine urobilinogen. The eight side groups (methyl, vinyl, and propionyl substituents) on the four pyrrole rings of heme are arranged in a specific sequence. Biosynthesis of the heme ring occurs in mitochondria and cytosol via eight enzymatic steps. Genetically determined abnormalities of seven of the eight enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis result in the inherited porphyrias.
Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia menopause yoga poses order clomid 50 mg online, hypertension womens health 63031 order 25mg clomid fast delivery, diabetes menopause migraines buy clomid online pills, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (Sypniewska women's health center wv proven clomid 25 mg, 2015). Since a large share on these disorders development have modifiable risk factors, mainly related to lifestyle, the effort of all professionals in the medical circles as well as among nutritionists about their reversal is therefore understandable. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the arteries, which develops over decades in response to the biologic effects of underlying risk factors (Nabel and Beaunwald, 2012), a multi-factorial disease with both genetic and environmental etiology. Nutritional habits, especially dietary fat are implicated in the process of atherosclerosis (Perk et al. It is considered to be an inflammatory and immunomodulatory response taking place in the vessel wall (Balagopal, 2011). Although it is difficult to alter genetic factors, modifiable environmental factors such as smoking or dietary patterns could be targeted in preventive interventions aimed at lowering these risk factors (Mirmiran et al. The number of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction was 194, of which 155 were men and 39 women. From the social factors we positively consider the fact that up to 86% of patients lived with their family in the same household. More than half of the patients were retired, while their highest level of education was mainly secondary education with graduation. In the context of a positive family history it is an interesting fact that up to 51. Our survey confirms high prevalence of overweight and obesity among people with cardiovascular disease. Overweight and obesity are considered to be a significant risk factor influencing creation of these diseases and their presence often worsens their course. Of the 238 hospitalized patients, 194 patients were diagnosed acute myocardial infarction, of which 155 were men and 39 women. The collection of data was carried out by a questionnaire method through guided conversation. Data collection was carried out simultaneously with somatometric and biochemical examination of the respondents. Recorded eating habits and lifestyle of respondents were compared with the current recommendations of nutritional criteria for patients with cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits Meat and meat products Meat and meat products are often associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases because they increase the total intake of fat, especially saturated. Atherogenic potential of saturated fatty acids is significantly higher (about twice that high) than anti-atherogenic effect of unsaturated fatty acids (Bada, 2001). The association between meat consumption and the incidence of chronic disease and mortality has been evaluated in hundreds of observational epidemiologic studies over the past few decades. Despite this wealth of data, it is unclear whether higher intakes of specific meat groups. However, this association was driven in many cases by the consumption of processed meats rather than by that of fresh red meat (Brown and Hazen, 2014). Therefore, some investigators propose that the preservatives used in food processing may be driving the deleterious effects. In fact, it has been suggested that the deleterious effects may relate to other ingredients, such as sodium, nitrites, heme iron, or L-carnitine (Brown and Hazen, 2014). The consumption of poultry meat was the most common among the patients, however the consumption was not statistically significant, p >0. Fish There is strong scientific evidence in many studies that n3 fatty acids derived from fish or fish oil significantly reduce the effect of risk factors of heart diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been observed to decrease the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and thus, fish consumption is believed to protect from diseases involving inflammatory processes (Wall et al. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake have also been suggested to slow the progression of atherosclerosis (Massaro et al. However, this fact has not been confirmed by our research, whereas 87% of women and 77. It can also be affected by smaller portions of fish, despite the fact that they are consumed relatively quite frequently. Fish consumption in the frequency of once a week is not statistically significant in both men and women, p >0. Milk and milk products Dairy products, in their natural form, contain relatively high fat and high saturated fat and cholesterol. Therefore, after occupying a prominent position among recommended other beef pork poultry 0 20 40 60 80 women men Figure 2 the preference of each types of meat in %. Some of the fats previously deemed as good might not be so healthy (ie, omega-6 polyunsaturated fats) and, conversely, that some of the bad fats might be healthy (ie, saturated fats from dairy foods) (Lawrence, 2013). Milk and dairy products are not only a source of energy and high quality proteins, but also an important source of trace elements in our diet. A systematic literature review of observational studies on the relationship between dairy fat and high-fat dairy foods, obesity, and cardiometabolic disease was conducted by Kratzet et al. Results suggest that dairy fat or high-fat dairy foods do not contribute to obesity or cardiometabolic risk, and imply that high-fat dairy consumption within typical dietary patterns is inversely associated with obesity risk. Some authors use the current evidence to recommend even an increase of dairy products in order to achieve a more complete and balanced nutrition. Fulfilling the recommended amounts, ie, 3 servings daily for individuals 9 years, helps to accomplish current overall nutrient intakes and recommendations. In our research, two thirds of patients reported that they consume milk and dairy products every day and the remaining one-third of them indulges that at least two to four times a week (Figure 3). It is highly inappropriate that there is up to 37% preference of full fat dairy products among men and 17. Fruits and vegetables Fruits and vegetables have always been considered health-promoting foods. This recommendation is based on the belief that eating fruit and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk through a combination of beneficial micronutrients, antioxidants, phytochemicals and fiber in these foods. It has been found that those with higher carotene intake had about 46% lower risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases than those who had low or no intake of these active substances (Liu et al. A recent report based on the Health Survey for England studied the eating habits of 65226 people. The report found that eating 7 portions of fruit and vegetables daily reduced the specific risks of death by cancer and heart disease by 25% and 31% respectively. This report also showed that vegetables have significantly higher health benefits than fruit (Oyebode et al. According to the Italian study, a diet rich in bulb vegetables can have a beneficial influence on the risk of acute myocardial infarction occurence. This is explained by the effect of low-fat milk semi-skimmed milk women men full fat milk 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Figure 3 the preference of each types of milk and milk products in %. This may be caused by an insufficient amount of eaten fruit and vegetables, despite their introduction into the daily diet. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was statistically insignificant in the study group (p >0. According to the recent findings it is recommended to eat up to 8 servings of fruit and vegetables to the people with cardiovascular risk, while one serving is considered to be 80 g. This corresponds to a small banana, medium sized apple, pear, orange or medium-sized carrot (Marmot, 2011). Bread and pastry Researchers from the University of Barcelona found out that eating bread on every day basis is a good way how to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. In a sample of older volunteers with high risk of cardiovascular diseases occurence, the results showed that those who ate bread daily had healthier lipid profile and lower insulin levels than those who did not consume it daily. The content of this metabolite was higher in those who ate wheat bread (Nordqvist, 2012). Too much sodium in the diet increases the risk of high blood pressure and it is one of the major risk factors of heart diseases (Paddock, 2012). From the answers of our respondentswe found out that bread and pastries are daily consumed by 100% of the respondents, while white bread is preferred by 49. Lifestyle Smoking Smoking, both active and passive, is an established vascular risk factor and one of the most serious global health problems and its harm to human health is of no doubt.
A compilation of the properties of different cereals malted under standard conditions is given in Table 2 pregnancy joint pain order clomid 100mg free shipping. Afterwards the yeast was removed and the resulting beer filled into bottles without further filtering or stabilization menstrual period calendar order cheap clomid on-line. However womens health half marathon buy clomid 100mg with visa, legislation maintains that rice pregnancy apps generic clomid 50 mg on-line, maize and dari are not regarded as cereals within the scope of this law. Furthermore, an annotation to the law equals dari with milo , thus excluding the entire category of sorghum [170, 171] from brewing. Beyond German legislation, however, various alternative starch/sugar sources are used for brewing. Grains in the form of grits or flakes have been well known to brewers for a long time, as these are byproducts of wet or dry milling technologies. Thus, dehulled and germless preparations are preferentially utilized in this technology. Refined corn and rice grits are today the most important sources of brewing adjuncts worldwide (for a comparison of price/wort properties for several common adjuncts, see ). The recent surge in maize syrup applications has made these products economically attractive. Molasses or other products of sugar production have also been used in brewing, but these are not derived from starchy plants and therefore are outside the scope of this chapter. The use of alternative carbohydrate sources requires appropriate enzymes for the mashing process. These can be provided by malting the respective grain or the simultaneous application of suitable malts, setting an upper limit to the ratio of unmalted adjunct added. It should be noted, however, that malted grains (and even malt meal) contain a selection of appropriate complementary enzymes in sufficient quantity closely attached to the corresponding carbohydrate and protein superstructure, while the use of external added proteases and glucohydrolases requires easily accessible. Moreover, using starchy adjuncts always requires a complementation with suitable nitrogen sources to ensure proper fermentation . As yeast fermentation of maltose is repressed by glucose , fermentation patterns of all-malt and malt/adjunct mixtures might differ from each other. Another aspect of the utilization of alternative grains or adjuncts is the appropriate mash separation technology for unhulled adjuncts . Cereal Wheat Maize Rice Barley Sorghum Millets Oats Rye Area planted (1000 ha) 213 571 146 823 149 919 56 073 42 214 33 862 11 730 6 908 Production (1000 tons) 626 679 472 157 362 611 152 387 58 553 27 747 26 047 17 645 overview over the planted area and world production of the most important brewing cereals. The ultimate criterion for the relevance of any brewing cereal and the ensuing beverage is the quality of the drink and its acceptance by the consumer. It will provide an overview of the multitude of cultivated, carbohydrate-rich cereals suited for beer production from a technological point of view. Moreover, such cereals should be economic, available in adequate quantity and quality, and readily malted with standard equipment. The malted product should comply with the common specifications for brewing materials. Barley is one of the most ubiquitous cereals worldwide; Russia, Canada and the European Countries being the biggest producers. Basically, tworowed and multirowed varieties, whose sowing and crop periods as well as their usage vary, must be differentiated. Barley prospers particularly in moderate climates on fertile and profound loamy soils with good water diffusion. Of all cultivated grain varieties, barley exhibits the best adaptability and also grows well in cold, rainy climate zones with long daylight periods as at the edge of hot, dry steppes. Barley is the major source for brewing malts, which constitute the single most important raw material for beer production. The physico-chemical properties of 60 2 Starchy Raw Materials barley and barley malt starches and the biochemistry of its synthesis and degradation are well known . In many countries outside Germany unmalted barley is used as a source of carbohydrates for beer production. Due to the abrasiveness of the kernels, fine grists must be produced, in this case by means of a hammer mill or a dispersion mill to ensure an optimal extract yield. It could be demonstrated, however, that it is cost-effective (less energy consumption and shorter mashing times) and advantageous under quality aspects to determine the gelatinization temperature in advance . Varieties with low gelatinization temperatures, which can be found among almost any cereal, should be preferred, since they require less malt or exogenous enzymes to be added. In mixtures of malted and unmalted barley, the portion of unmalted grains should not exceed 50%, as higher ratios exceed the capacity (quantity and activity) of the endogenous hydrolases in malt during the mashing process [182, 183]. If the ratio of malted to unmalted barley exceeds of 50%, the addition of exogenous hydrolases, such as protease, -amylase and -glucanase, as well as separate mashing conditions are mandatory. By increasing the addition of barley, the -glucan concentration rises arithmetically and the viscosity increases even exponentially . This necessitates the addition of enzyme adjuncts (glucanases) to avoid imminent lautering and filtration difficulties. Another important, although often unnoticed, application of barley is its processing into color and aroma malts. On the one hand, barley can be roasted in a raw state, as happens particularly in the case of Irish stout beers. On the other hand, barley black malt or barley black malt beers can be used conformable to the Bavarian Purity Law for color adjustment. It is possible to add barley black malt during the entire brewing process until shortly before the filling. The broad variety of aroma and specialty malts has been described elsewhere [184, 185]. Oats belong to the group of secondary cultivated plants, which pre-existed as weeds in the primary cultivated plants . While oats served as the predominant brewing cereal during the Middle Ages  and was long afterwards used to brew inferior beers , they have now lost their significance for brewing. Today, oats play only a minor role in world grain production; Russia, Canada and the United States being the largest producers. As a panicled grain, oats differs phenotypically from the other major grain varieties. The germination conditions resemble those of barley; the germs, however, are looser because of the voluptuous husks. Moreover, oats exhibit significantly reduced hydrolytic activities in comparison to barley. Thus, malted oats from most contemporary varieties are only of little use for beer production. Worts from 100% oat malt are comparable with respect to their physicochemical properties with barley malt worts. The beers differ, however, with respect to their sensory properties, exhibiting a distinct, oat-typical taste and good reduction properties. However, the use of oat malt might improve the turbidity stability of top-fermented beers in accordance the purity laws. A multitude of millets is counted in this group; however, only the most important for beer production are treated in the following sections. The properties of malted proso millet, the predominant millet in Germany, are specified in Table 2. With a cultivated area of 26 million hectares, it is the economically most important short-grain type of millet. The dry climate with yearly precipitations between 200 and 600 mm is favored by pearl millet and makes it the most drought-resistant grain . For this purpose only short germination times are required and germination is completed mostly after 24 h.
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