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Similarly skin care heaven buy benzac australia, if the claim is directed to skin care not tested on animals generic 20gr benzac mastercard a law of nature or a natural phenomenon skin care routine quiz 20gr benzac with amex, the rejection should identify the law of nature or natural phenomenon as it is recited acne guide order benzac once a day. Examiners should give weight to all of the claimed additional elements in Prong Two, even if those elements represent well-understood, routine, conventional activity. Under the principles of compact prosecution, regardless of whether a rejection under 35 U. Thus, examiners should state all non-cumulative reasons and bases for rejecting claims in the first Office action. While not required, this explanation or justification may include citing to an appropriate court decision that supports the identification of the subject matter recited in the claim language as an abstract idea within one of the groupings. Examiners should be familiar with any cited decision relied upon in making or maintaining a rejection to ensure that the rejection is reasonably tied to the facts of the case and to avoid relying upon language taken out of context. Sample explanation: the claim recites the step of comparing collected information to a predefined threshold, which is an act of evaluating information that can be practically performed in the human mind. A subject matter eligibility rejection should point to the specific claim limitation(s) that recites. The rejection must explain why those claim limitations set forth or describe a judicial exception. Where the claim describes, but does not expressly set forth, the judicial exception, the rejection must also explain what subject matter those limitations describe, and why the described subject matter is a judicial exception. When the examiner has determined the claim recites an abstract idea, the rejection should identify the abstract idea as it is recited. Sample explanation: the claim recites the correlation of X, and X is a law of nature because it describes a consequence of natural processes in the human body. When the examiner has determined the claim recites a product of nature, the rejection should identify the exception as it is recited. Sample explanation: the claim recites X, which as explained in the specification was isolated from naturally occurring Y. X is a nature-based product, so it is compared to its closest naturally occurring counterpart (X in its natural state) to determine if it has markedly different characteristics. Because there is no indication in the record that isolation of X has resulted in a marked difference in structure, function, or other properties as compared to its counterpart, X is a product of nature exception. When making a rejection, it is important for the examiner to explain the rationale underlying the conclusion so that applicant can effectively respond. On the other hand, when appropriate, the examiner should explain why the additional elements integrate an exception into a practical application or provide an inventive concept by adding a meaningful limitation to the claimed exception. For claim limitations that recite a generic computer component performing generic computer functions at a high level of generality, such as using the Internet to gather data, examiners can explain why these generic computing functions do not meaningfully limit the claim. The explanation should address the additional elements both individually and as a combination when determining whether the claim as whole recites eligible subject matter. It is important to remember that a new combination of steps in a process may be patent eligible even though all the steps of the combination were individually well known and in common use before the combination was made. Thus, it is particularly critical to address the combination of additional elements, because while individually-viewed elements may not appear to 2100-91 Rev. For claim limitations that add insignificant extra-solution activity to the judicial exception. For example, adding a final step of storing data to a process that only recites computing the area of a two dimensional space (a mathematical relationship) does not add a meaningful limitation to the process of computing the area. As another example, employing well-known computer functions to execute an abstract idea, even when limiting the use of the idea to one particular environment, does not integrate the exception into a practical application or add significantly more, similar to how limiting the computer implemented abstract idea in Flook to petrochemical and oil-refining industries was insufficient. In the event a rejection is made, it is a best practice for the examiner to consult the specification to determine if there are elements that could be added to the claim to make it eligible. If so, the examiner should identify those elements in the Office action and suggest them as a way to overcome the rejection. Thus, the court does not require "evidence" that a claimed concept is a judicial exception, and generally decides the legal conclusion of eligibility without resolving any factual issues. In some cases, however, the courts have characterized the issue of whether additional elements are well-understood, routine, conventional activity as an underlying factual issue upon which the legal conclusion of eligibility may be based. When performing the analysis at Step 2A Prong One, it is sufficient for the examiner to provide a reasoned rationale that identifies the judicial exception recited in the claim and explains why it is considered a judicial exception. At Step 2A Prong Two or Step 2B, there is no requirement for evidence to support a finding that the exception is not integrated into a practical application or that the additional elements do not amount to significantly more than the exception unless the examiner asserts that additional limitations are well-understood, routine, conventional activities in Step 2B. Examiners should not assert that an additional element (or combination of elements) is well-understood, routine, or conventional unless the examiner finds, and expressly supports the rejection in writing with one or more of the following: (A) A citation to an express statement in the specification or to a statement made by an applicant during prosecution that demonstrates the well-understood, routine, conventional nature of the additional element(s). A specification demonstrates the well-understood, routine, conventional nature of additional elements when it describes the additional elements as well-understood or routine or conventional (or an equivalent term), as a commercially available product, or in a manner that indicates that the additional elements are sufficiently well-known that the specification does not need to describe the particulars of such additional elements to satisfy 35 U. A finding that an element is well-understood, routine, or conventional cannot be based only on the fact that the specification is silent with respect to describing such element. Examiners should be careful to ensure the claim limitations before the examiner are the same as those found to be well-understood, routine, conventional by the courts. The additional elements under examination should be recited in the same manner, meaning they should be recited at the same high level of generality as in those court decisions. It is not enough that the additional elements are similar to the elements at issue in those cases. Examiners should keep in mind that the courts have held computer-implemented processes to be significantly more than an abstract idea (and thus eligible), where generic computer components are able in combination to perform functions that are not merely generic. An appropriate publication could include a book, manual, review article, or other source that describes the state of the art and discusses what is well-known and in common use in the relevant industry. It does not include all items that might otherwise qualify as a "printed publication" as used in 35 U. Whether something is disclosed in a document that is considered a "printed publication" under 35 U. A document may be a printed publication but still fail to establish that something it describes is well-understood, routine, conventional activity. This option should be used only when examiners are certain, based upon their personal knowledge, that the additional element(s) represents well-understood, routine, conventional activity engaged in by those in the relevant art, in that the additional elements are widely prevalent or in common use in the relevant field, comparable to the types of activity or elements that are so well-known that they do not need to be described in detail in a patent application to satisfy 35 U. For example, the examiner could take official notice that a generic computer component performing generic computer functions at a high level of generality, such as using the Internet to gather data, is well-understood, routine, conventional. If the judicial exception to which the claim is directed is a "tentative abstract idea," i. This form paragraph must be followed by a detailed explanation of the grounds of rejection using one or more of form paragraphs 7. The claim(s) does/do not fall within at least one of the four categories of patent eligible subject matter because [1] Examiner Note: 2106. In bracket 1, explain why the claimed invention is not patent eligible subject matter by identifying what the claim(s) is/are directed to and explain why it does not fall within at least one of the four categories of patent eligible subject matter recited in 35 U. For a claim that is directed to a judicial exception and is nonstatutory, use form paragraph 7. This judicial exception is not integrated into a practical application because [3]. The claim(s) does/do not include additional elements that are sufficient to amount to significantly more than the judicial exception because [4]. This form paragraph is for use with all product (machine, manufacture, and composition of matter) and process claims, and for all claims directed to a law of nature, natural phenomenon (including a product of nature), or abstract idea. In bracket 1, identify whether the claim(s) are directed to a law of nature, a natural phenomenon (including a product of nature), or an abstract idea. In bracket 2, identify the exception by referring to how it is recited in the claim and explain why it is considered an exception. For example, "the Arrhenius equation, which is a law of nature and a mathematical concept which describes the relationship between temperature and reaction rate" or "the series of steps instructing how to hedge risk, which is a fundamental economic practice and thus grouped as a certain method of organizing human interactions. In bracket 3, explain why the combination of additional elements fails to integrate the judicial exception into a practical application. For example, if the claim is directed to an abstract idea with additional generic computer elements, explain that the generically recited computer elements do not add a meaningful limitation to the abstract idea because they amount to simply implementing the abstract idea on a computer; or, if the claim is directed to a method of using a naturally occurring correlation, explain that data gathering steps required to use the correlation do not add a meaningful limitation to the method as they are insignificant extra-solution activity. In bracket 4, identify the additional elements and explain why, when considered separately and in combination, they do not add significantly more (also known as an "inventive concept") to the exception. Nonetheless, the claim limitation(s) is/are being treated as reciting an abstract idea because [1]. This form paragraph should be used to demonstrate that this approval has been obtained. In bracket 1, provide the justification for why the claim limitation(s) is/are being treated as an abstract idea.

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Circulating osteopontin and prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in a large European population acne 5 months postpartum purchase benzac cheap. Analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies mutations and gene expression changes in the transforming growth factor- pathway skin care logos generic benzac 20gr on-line. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: old and new paradigms acne zoomed in purchase on line benzac. Tobacco smoking acne scar laser treatment 20 gr benzac otc, alcohol consumption and their interaction in the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Synergistic effects of family history of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus infection on risk for incident hepatocellular carcinoma. Incidence and cofactors of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study of 12,008 men in Taiwan. Risk assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C patients by transient elastography. The risk of end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma among persons infected with hepatitis C virus: publication bias? Interferon therapy reduces the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: national surveillance program of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan. Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes. The incidence and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Large-scale long-term follow-up study of Japanese patients with non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease for the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Populationattributable fractions of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Cancer risk in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and in their first-degree relatives. Incidence and determinants of hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in end-stage liver disease. Early detection, curative treatment, and survival rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. An assessment of benefits and harms of hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. Predictors of adequate ultrasound quality for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. Screening and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma: an introduction to Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System. Test characteristics of -fetoprotein for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C. Improved detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by using a longitudinal alpha-fetoprotein screening algorithm. The updated model: an adjusted serum alpha-fetoprotein­based algorithm for hepatocellular carcinoma detection with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. The utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation in a United States referral population. Des-carboxy (abnormal) prothrombin as a serum marker of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Plasma des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in the early stage of hepatocellular carcinoma. Alpha-fetoprotein, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, and lectin-bound alpha-fetoprotein in early hepatocellular carcinoma. The detection of hepatocellular carcinoma using a prospectively developed and validated model based on serological biomarkers. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma: preliminary results. Pivotal evaluation of the accuracy of a biomarker used for classification or prediction: standards for study design. Isolation and characterization of rotavirus from feral pigeon in mammalian cell cultures. Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System v2014 with gadoxetate disodium­enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. In: Scientific Meeting of Radiological Society of North America, November 26, 2017. Imaging for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis with evidence from 1998 to 2016. Pathologic diagnosis of early hepatocellular carcinoma: a report of the International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia. Positive glypican-3 expression in early hepatocellular carcinoma predicts recurrence after hepatectomy. Prospective validation of an immunohistochemical panel (glypican 3, heat shock protein 70 and glutamine synthetase) in liver biopsies for diagnosis of very early hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of 7 staging systems in an American cohort. Applicability of staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is dependent on treatment method ­ Analysis of 2010 Taiwanese patients. Development of Hong Kong Liver Cancer Staging System with treatment stratification for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Validation of the Hong Kong Liver Cancer Staging System in determining prognosis of the North American patients following intra-arterial therapy. Patient-physician disagreement regarding performance status is associated with worse survivorship in patients with advanced cancer. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. Portal vein embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate before partial hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and underlying cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis. Major hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with or without portal vein embolization: perioperative outcome and survival. The utility of unilobar technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin to predict pulmonary toxicity in bilobar hepatocellular carcinoma prior to yttrium-90 radioembolization. Long-term survival analysis of pure laparoscopic versus open hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: a single-center experience. Long-term and 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic versus open liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with propensity score matching: a multi-institutional Japanese study. Laparoscopic liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: 10-year single-center experience. Pure laparoscopic versus open right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: a propensity score matched analysis. Long-term survival and pattern of recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with preserved liver function. Recurrence of hepatocellular cancer after resection: patterns, treatments, and prognosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma patients are advantaged in the current liver transplant allocation system. Downstaging of hepatocellular cancer before liver transplant: long-term outcome compared to tumors within Milan criteria. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of down-staging in patients initially outside the Milan selection criteria. Recommendations for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an International Consensus Conference report. Difference in tumor invasiveness in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fulfilling the Milan criteria treated by resection and transplantation: impact on long-term survival. Curative salvage liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: an intention-to-treat analysis. Clinical outcomes of radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous alcohol and acetic acid injection for hepatocelullar carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

The frequency of follow-up visits after a new pharmacotherapy is initiated may vary from a few days to acne keloidalis nuchae cure cheap 20 gr benzac two weeks acne jeans sale discount benzac 20gr without a prescription. One group has explored a computer-based approach coupled with a touch-tone telephone system accessible 24 hours a day acne under beard discount benzac 20gr with visa. The number of treatment sessions acne upper lip purchase 20 gr benzac visa, their length, and the duration of an adequate trial have not been established, but expert consensus recommends 13­20 weekly sessions for most patients [I]. It is essential for the psychiatrist to employ strategies to enhance adherence, as described above in Section I. Most patients will not experience substantial improvement until 4­6 weeks after starting medication, and some who will ultimately respond will experience little improvement for as many as 10­12 weeks. Higher doses may also be appropriate for patients who have had little response to treatment and are tolerating a medication well [I]. Experience with pharmacotherapy in the elderly indicates that lower starting doses of medication and a more gradual approach to dose increase are often advisable [I]. The available evidence does not allow one to predict the chance of response to switching medications. Obsessions may occur spontaneously or be evoked by a feared environmental stimulus or event. Obsessions are intrusive, persistent, unwanted thoughts, impulses, or images that give rise to marked anxiety or distress. The therapeutic alliance allows the psychiatrist to obtain the information needed to plan effective treatment. The alliance allows the patient to trust the physician and helps motivate adherence to collaboratively planned treatments. Increased attention to excessive worry about medication side effects, perfectionism, or checking behaviors may be needed. These actions and interventions include providing the following: · Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the appropriate setting, as indicated by patient preference and clinical judgment; · Guidance to the patient and involved family members about educational materials that are available in published form and on the Web (see Appendix); and · Information about local support groups (see Appendix). The components of psychiatric management across the stages of illness are described in more detail below. Do you worry a lot about whether you performed religious rituals correctly or have been immoral? If another Axis I disorder is present, the content of the obsessions or compulsions is not restricted to it. Specify if: With Poor Insight: if, for most of the time during the current episode, the person does not recognize that the obsessions and compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. Obsessions held with delusional conviction can be distinguished from schizophrenic and manic delusions by the absence of other signs and symptoms of these disorders. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (11), a self-rated scale, may also be considered. Collateral information from family members or others can be helpful in assessing such risks. Although accurate prediction of dangerousness to self or others is not possible in a given individual at a given point in time, many factors have been associated with increased risk in groups of individuals and are, therefore, important to determine. In rare instances, self-injury can also be directly or indirectly associated with compulsive behaviors. Risk for suicide and for suicide attempts is also increased by a history of previous suicide attempts, including aborted attempts. If a patient has considered suicide, the extent of planning or preparation and the relative lethality of any planned suicide methods should be considered. Also relevant is any family history of suicide, recent exposure to suicide or suicide attempts by others, real or perceived lack of social supports, and recent losses, including impairments resulting from medical conditions. Such questioning should be sensitive to the fact that patients may fear thoughts, impulses, urges, or images related to harming others or to sexually abusing a child, even though these are experienced as alien to the self and true desires. In assessing the past psychiatric history, a chronological history should be obtained of past psychiatric illnesses, including substance use disorders and treatment, and of hospitalizations. The nature, extent, and response to all trials of psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, should also be documented. Current medications and doses should be reviewed to determine potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic inter- 5. Evaluation should also include screening for alcohol or substance abuse or dependence. In some (31, 39) but not all studies (24), an increased risk of alcohol abuse and de- Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Herbal or "natural" remedies must also be inquired about, along with hormonal therapies, vitamins, other over-the-counter medications, and other alternative or complementary treatments. On careful exploration, reactions the patient describes as "allergies" will sometimes turn out to be unpleasant but manageable side effects. In performing the review of systems, the psychiatrist should record the presence and severity of somatic or psychological symptoms that could be confused with medication side effects. Other specific information that may be relevant to the assessment of psychosocial stressors includes living arrangements; sources of income, insurance, or prescription coverage; access to transportation and health care; and past or current involvement with social agencies or the justice system. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 6. Patients may, for example, obsess about possible medication side effects and, as a result, refuse pharmacotherapy. Cognitive and motivational effects of co-occurring conditions such as major depression must also be taken into account. For example, it is important to inform patients about the delay between starting medication and experiencing substantial symptom relief, and the need for extended periods of medication taking (51). Informing the patient about any likely side effects, responding quickly to side effect concerns, and scheduling follow-up appointments soon after starting or changing medications will enhance adherence. Establish the Appropriate Setting for Treatment In general, patients should be cared for in the least restrictive setting that is likely to be safe and to allow for effective treatment. Clinician-related issues in the therapeutic alliance may also interfere with adherence and therapeutic success. They may accuse the patient of being weak or "crazy" or may react to symptomatic behavior with inappropriate anger. Pharmaceutical companies may provide free medications for patients with severe financial limitations, with the exact criteria differing from company to company. Provide Education to the Patient and, When Appropriate, to the Family Patients often have little knowledge of the nature, biology, course, and treatment of their disorders. Education will help destigmatize the illness and allow the patient to make more fully informed decisions about treatments. Employers may need help in understanding what accommodations are appropriate in light of the Americans With Disabilities Act (56), and referral to a state vocational rehabilitation agency or an occupational therapist may be indicated. Citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline (along with venlafaxine and mirtazapine) have few or no important known drug interactions. Implementing Pharmacotherapy the need to educate the patient about any medication recommended has been emphasized earlier. Experience with pharmacotherapy in the elderly indicates that lower starting doses of medication and a more gradual approach to dose increase are often advisable. Moreover, patients who have not responded to a known effective dose after 10­12 weeks may respond at higher doses (83, 84). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder increments to the maximum recommended dose if this is comfortably tolerated), rather than waiting for 1­2 months before each dose increment to evaluate results. However, these studies were not designed to identify whether rapid or ultrarapid metabolizers of these medications were more likely to be nonresponders. Thus, clomipramine is more likely to induce anticholinergic effects such as tachycardia, dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, although these typically diminish over time. Gastrointestinal distress can be minimized by starting with low doses; if mild queasiness or nausea occurs, it will usually disappear within 1­2 weeks at a constant dose. Fatigue or sleepiness may respond to the addition of modest doses of modafinil (91). Cases of successful treatment of sweating have been reported with low doses of anticholinergic agents such as benztropine (92, 93), and with clonidine (94), cyproheptadine (95), and mirtazapine (96). Few controlled trials have been published regarding the management of sexual side effects, which may affect one- third or more of patients (97). The drug holiday approach may alleviate difficulties with erection or orgasm but not with libido. It is not effective for fluoxetine because of its long half-life (98) and may induce withdrawal symptoms if attempted with paroxetine or venlafaxine.

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Those who reported being too drunk or high to acne ziana 20gr benzac sale control their behavior during the incident were also less likely to skin care with ross buy 20 gr benzac with mastercard report (3 acne vacuum buy 20gr benzac fast delivery. Degree of memory for the incident appeared to skin care salon purchase benzac 20gr fast delivery relate to reporting such that those who said they remembered the incident "extremely well" (22%) were more likely to report than those who said they remembered "very well" (6. Women who identified the incident as rape were significantly more likely to report the rape to authorities (26. What are the attitudes and opinions of women about reporting rape to law enforcement? These questions were only asked of women whose assaults were not reported by others. As noted in Exhibits 35 and 36, a low percentage of women reported their rape to law enforcement. Of these, the most common reason given by women for reporting was to prevent crimes against others (see Exhibits 37, 38, 39, and 40). Very few women reported the rape for the primary purpose of getting help, getting medical care, catching or finding the perpetrator, or punishing the perpetrator. Major Reason Reported to Police ­ Forcible Rape (N=71/618) Cases: General Population Sample Reason To get help after the incident To get medical care To prevent further crimes against self Prevent crimes against others Punish offender Catch or find offender Because it was a crime Not sure/other N 2 1 7 22 6 9 11 14 % 3 1 8 31 8 13 15 20 In the college sample, only 21 cases were identified that were reported to the authorities. Nearly half of these cases were reported for the primary purpose of preventing crimes against others. None was reported for the primary purpose of punishing the offender (Exhibits 41 and 42). Major Reason Reported to Police­Forcible Rape (N=13/171) Cases: College Women Sample Reason To get help after the incident To get medical care To prevent further crimes against self Prevent crimes against others Punish offender Catch or find offender Because it was a crime Not sure/other 2 4 15 31 1 5 8 38 N 1 % 8 What are major barriers to reporting that women identified? Exhibits 41 and 42 show the percentage of victims citing the main reason why they did not report the incident to police. In both samples and with regard to both types of rape, 50% or more endorsed responses related to not wanting family or others to know about the rap, lack of proof, and fear of reprisal by the assailant or others. Finally, a third or more of participants in each sample and with regard to each type of rape indicated that the main reason they did not report the incident was because they did not know how to report or because they feared they would be treated badly by police, lawyers, or other parts of the criminal justice system. Willingness of rape victims to report the crime to police is critical to stopping perpetrators of assault, protecting society by preventing more assaults by serial perpetrators and redressing 48 this document is a research report submitted to the U. One mechanism for possibly increasing reporting would be public education to reduce stigma surrounding rape and to educate about typical rape characteristics and what to do when someone discloses an assault. Friends and relatives may be the first individuals who are told of an assault and there response may be critical in terms of recommending health care and social services and contact with the criminal justice system. Research on disclosure of rape indicates that negative social reactions may be more common when victims report the assault to health care providers and police whereas perceived helpfulness of friends or rape crisis personnel has been associated with positive reactions to disclosure (Ullman, 1996). The current study examined disclosure and reactions to disclosure primarily in reference to reporting to police. The majority of participants said they encouraged the person to report to the police and that they would encourage reporting of such an incident in the future. Participants also believed that enhanced services and privacy protection might reduce barriers to reporting to police. It was also clear that the vast majority of rape incidents were not reported to police or medical care providers or victim service agencies. Among most common reasons for nonreporting were not wanting family or others to know, fear of reprisal, lack of proof that the crime occurred. Finally, as noted above, at least one-third of rape victims said they did not report because they feared being treated badly by police or other parts of the criminal justice system. Lack of awareness about this type of incident may underlie at least in part the finding related to confusion about whether the incident was a crime or whether harm was intended. Public education can also address the issue of how to report an incident, who to contact, and what services are available. What are also needed are changes in how victims are treated within the system so that secondary victimization does not occur. Based on findings cited by Ullman (1996) and results of the current study, it will be difficult for others to encourage reporting to police or other authorities without confidence in how rape victims will be treated and the types of services provided. Chi-square analyses were conducted to examine associations between histories of each type of rape and each type of mental health problem. Current percentages for victims appear somewhat higher among college than general population women, but this may be a recency effect whereby younger (college) women have fewer years elapsed between the rape and interview, on average. Among college women, about 2 in 5 rape victims met lifetime criteria for depression, and over one-third met current criteria. In the general population sample, report of each type of past-year substance use and abuse was significantly higher (all p <. For the college sample, prevalence of past year binge drinking, past year drug use and substance abuse was significantly higher (all p <. Prevalence of any drug use was significantly higher in association with history of each type of rape within each sample (all p <. The pattern of findings is similar to that found in each of these previous exhibits. Past-year substance abuse was significantly higher for those with histories of each type of rape compared to those without such histories (all p <. A total of 2992 women within the general population sample provided valid responses to a question asking about seeking help from a professional related to emotional problems. Among this group, 1136 or 38% had sought help for emotional problems at some point. Help-seeking was reported by significantly more women with history of forcible rape than those without forcible rape history (60. Help-seeking was reported by significantly more women with a history of forcible rape compared to women without that history (55. Conclusions the data from this study provide important information regarding the lifetime prevalence, past year prevalence, characteristics, and mental health impact of rape among adult women residing in United States households as well as among United States female college students. In addition to providing comparison data about the extent to which the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of forcible rape have changed among adult women in the U. First, a telephone survey is limited to the population of women who live in households with telephones. For this reason, the study does not capture the experiences of women who do not live in households with telephones (approximately 5% of the population). Second, our assessment procedures relied exclusively upon retrospective, selfreport data. This methodology introduces potential recall biases that are difficult to avoid in large-scale epidemiological research. A more informative, but much more costly, study design would have involved longitudinal assessment of these participants with several assessment points over time. Fourth, due to cost restrictions associated with sample recruitment, we were unable to design the study to capture a large sample of women aged 18-24 years old, which would have provided a better opportunity for direct comparisons with the college women population. Because the two study samples differed considerably with regard to age groups, marital status, and income distributions, interpretations based on comparisons between these two samples must be made cautiously, with attention to these differences. Finally, although sample size was fairly large, sample sizes within minority groups were relatively small and limited the extent to which research questions could be answered within each of these groups. The authors believe that these data address several important questions in the sexual assault, criminal justice, and mental health fields, and the authors also believe that the findings have implications for research and policy. Prior to presenting these implications, seven questions will be identified and addressed. Question 1: Has the lifetime and past-year prevalence of forcible rape among adult women in the United States changed from 1991-2005? Three general population studies have been conducted that used extremely similar methodology and virtually identical screening questions for forcible rape. Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) reported that the lifetime prevalence of forcible rape among U. The lifetime prevalence of forcible rape based on data collected in 2006 from adult women in the current study was 16. Past year prevalence of forcible rape is defined as the proportion of women who have been forcibly raped in the year prior to being interviewed. These comparison data on past year prevalence of forcible rape also indicate that there has been no reduction in the proportion of adult women who are forcibly raped each year over the past 15 years.